Mapping the Trail

This Cyclopean textwall is a review of the Trail of Cthulhu RPG which got way, way out of hand. I considered breaking this into several parts, but then you’d get the thing where people start commenting and responding to an earlier part when they’ve not yet read and digested the later parts, so you’re getting the whole epic in one big post.

Disdain For Derlethians

My favoured flavour of Lovecraftian RPG is and always has been Call of Cthulhu, which may partly be down to my familiarity with the system and the sheer amount of material out there for it but I think also comes down to the strength of the original design (the lack of major revisions from early editions to 6th Edition is testament to this) and the way that 7th Edition has made genuinely useful improvements to the system (along with optional systems like luck spends or pushing rolls which help dial back the swinginess of the system).

Some of the significant improvements to 7th Edition seem to be a reaction to or refinement of ideas from Trail of Cthulhu from Pelgrane Press. Trail has carved out a niche for itself as perhaps the most significant of the surprising number of “it’s Call of Cthulhu, but with a different system” games out there, and I think you can track this pre-eminence to three important factors. The first is that Pelgrane have gave Trail it a fairly substantial support line right out of the gate, whilst much of Trail‘s early run has coincided with the old regime at Chaosium being in a bit of a decline and therefore not producing so many Cthulhu products in their own right (though in fact Trail is made by arrangement with Chaosium, so they probably get their cut out of this). The second factor which made Trail stand out from the crowd comes from it being written by Ken Hite, who’s well-versed both in Lovecraftiana and in horror in general – his Nightmares of Mine is still the definitive text on horror RPGs as far as I and many others are concerned. The third factor which put Trail on the map comes from it being a Lovecraftian implementation of the GUMSHOE system by Robin Laws, which unlike most systems people try to convert Call of Cthulhu to is designed from the ground up to support investigative RPG play.

That said, I resisted trying out Trail for a long time. There is an irrational part of me which largely rejected it because it’s named after August Derleth’s absolute worst Cthulhu Mythos story, an incredibly repetitive “novel” lashed together from a set of short stories which are outright mutually contradictory – and not contradictory in a cool, evocative cosmic horror sort of way so much as a “this is a massive display of basic authorial incompetence” sort of way. Hite seems to have this enjoyment of Derleth which is weirdly uncharacteristic of someone who is even remotely discerning in terms of their reading material – tastes do vary, but there is such a thing as objectively bad writing and Derleth’s Trail is living proof of that – though Hite at least admits that his is not the majority opinion.

This Trail of Cthulhu is bad and should feel bad.

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Farewell to Loren Wiseman

Just got the news via Tenkar’s Tavern that Loren Wiseman has passed away.

Wiseman is mostly significant to gamers as part of the old GDW team, where he co-designed games like Twilight: 2000 (which has rather fallen out of fashion but was the top post-apocalyptic RPG back in its prime) and En Garde! (a very, very early post-D&D RPG – in fact, it’s sufficiently early that it barely resembles a recognisable RPG, though its rather mechanistic and limited rules do make it nicely suited for play-by-email purposes).

He’s mostly famed, though, as a major contributor over the years to Traveller, both during its original run at GDW and as the mastermind behind the GURPS Traveller line at Steve Jackson Games.

I’ve gone on the record before as saying that there’s probably too many official system conversions for Traveller out there, but out of all of them, GURPS Traveller was easily the best. (Indeed, I suspect its success was the main motivation behind many of the other Traveller conversions over the years – and part of me wonders whether Mongoose would have even taken a punt on Traveller had the GURPS line not kept it fresh and asserted the Third Imperium as a still-viable setting.) A large part of this came down to the excellent setting material for it – useful stuff whether you were using GURPS or one of the existing Traveller systems or some conversion of your own design.

One useful decision made was to set the GURPS line in an alternate timeline where the Rebellion that kicked off the MegaTraveller setting never happened. This did allow the GURPS line to distance itself from controversial setting changes that had divided the fanbase in the past, but it also posed the challenge of making the setting seem like a place you could have dynamic, exciting adventures in despite the rather static nature of the Imperium. At its best, the GURPS line solved that problem by providing strong emphasis on traditional flashpoints like the Solomani Rim and the Spinward Marches, along with really strong planetary writeups which remembered that each planet should in its own right provide a jumping-off point for adventure; underpinning this seems to have been an understanding that the adventure in Traveller isn’t so much in the galactic-scale macropolitics (which by its very nature is too vast and glacial for any individual adventuring party to really expect to make much of a dent on) and more on local-scale tensions.

Regardless of whether this represented Wiseman’s position all along and he’d just been overruled back in the GDW days, or a lesson painfully learned during the decline and fall of GDW, this approach to Traveller offered a refreshing clean break from the galaxy-wide revolutions and disasters that GDW had become fond of during the later phase of the line, and the GURPS line – and Wiseman – deserve a toast from all Traveller fans for that.

With a career as long as Wiseman’s, of course, GURPS Traveller only represents the tip of the iceberg. He also coauthored The Traveller Adventure – a campaign so well-regarded that Mongoose more or less reprinted it with minimal changes to update it for their version of the system rather than making extensive changes to it. And I especially want to pick out Book 0: An Introduction to Traveller as an important contribution of his (excerpts were later incorporated into Starter Traveller, a beginner’s version of Classic Traveller, and The Traveller Book, a complete-in-one-book version of the core Classic Traveller rules).

This was a Classic Traveller supplement that was originally one of the booklets you got in the Deluxe Traveller core set, and represents perhaps the most extensive “What are RPGs, and what’s the deal with this specific RPG?” piece ever written for a major game line up to that point (and for a good while afterwards at that). I particularly like the fact that it goes into fine detail about the tasks of the referee – a vitally important concept for newcomers to get their heads around – as well as providing an example of play which reads like a real session with real personalities to the players, as opposed to the rather sterile style some examples of play can be presented in. The booklet as a whole is especially worth revisiting in terms of the level it pitches the material at; it’s an excellent example of how you can present this stuff patiently and carefully to an interested audience without talking down to them or making them feel like you’re treating them like a confused child, and I would recommend a quick reread of it to anyone who’s about to undertake the task of writing a “What is roleplaying?” essay.

(In a classic example of Far Future Enterprises making business decisions that make me go “bwuh?”, they’re selling PDFs of Book 0 for $4.99. Come on, Miller – there’s no substantive system stuff in there, it’s an introductory text, give the PDF out for free to tantalise the audience.)

So, if you saw the news that Loren had died on the grapevine and weren’t aware of what he’d produced, that’s just a little cross-section there of the stuff that stood out to me. Please send kind thoughts in the direction of his friends and family.

The Reality of Mythic Europe

One of the advantages that historically-themed games like Ars Magica have is that there’s masses more setting information out there for historical settings than could ever be produced for s fantasy world, with a richness and depth that goes beyond that of any invented setting. One of the disadvantages of that is that it can be quite hard to get a really good overview of important subjects compiled with an eye to being gameable.

Thus, it’s quite handy that Atlas have produced a string of Ars Magica supplements which focus on the reality of 13th Century Europe. It isn’t that you couldn’t draw this information together yourself with enough time – but that would be a lot of effort which the designers have saved you, and they’ve described these matters with an eye to integrating them into the Ars Magica system in interesting ways.

City & Guild

This is a supplement covering medieval towns and cities, merchantile activity, guilds of craftspeople, trade, and so on. This is subject matter which both has the potential to be rather dry and tends not to be the sort of thing that we tend to put front and centre when we think of medieval Europe, but I actually think that its slight obscurity is part of what makes this supplement of interesting. It is true, of course, that following the fall of the Western Empire that much of Europe became much more rural and trade became much more sparse, but it is a massive oversimplification to take this assumption too far and including cities, trade, and guilds enriches a historical medieval setting. (Indeed, in my current campaign the city of Toulouse is not too far away from the PCs’ Covenant, and one of the PC Companions is a merchant.)

Though there are some system bits provided in here if you really want a rigorous system for working out how many pots your potter makes in a season (or whatever), a large part of the value of the supplement comes in its discussions of how guilds, cities, and the liked worked during the time period. Whilst this is not a substitute for looking to more rigorous sources if you want to become an expert (and a decent bibliography is provided if you want to read further), I think what Atlas have usefully done here is provide an introductory condensation of information with a specific focus on stuff which makes for good gaming material. There’s an extensive discussion of town charters, for instance, because the authors recognise that there’s an enormous amount of interesting political gaming that can arise from interactions with a town charter – whether it revolves around acquiring one, blocking the acquisition of one, changing its terms or trying to abide by its requirements. On top of that, they show a decent amount of imagination when it comes to working in aspects of Mythic Europe even to this subject, with ideas offered about the sort of charters which might be offered not by the secular or ecclesiastical authorities but by faeries or Hell.

The discussion of the workings of guilds is particularly interesting, not least because it points out a very nice way to allow for women to be extensively involved in them which seems on the face of it to have some historical credibility: namely, that whilst formally many guilds were closed to women, in practice women could be entered onto the membership rolls of a guild under their father’s name. This is a nice example of how “historical accuracy” isn’t really an excuse for locking women out of having powerful, interesting roles in society in historical RPGs: yes, in women faced barriers above and beyond the barriers they still face today, but equally there have always been women who have found their way past those barriers.

In terms of trade, the discussions are also of some interest. It is worth remembering that the default start year of 5th Edition campaigns is 1220, which would be when Venice and other cities had become major powers through the power of trade, so it’s definitely in the high medieval era when a functional economy is coming back into Europe and the power of coin is rising once more. Indeed, if you start a campaign in 1220 then the hottest news of the past few years would be the Fourth Crusade, in which Venice used its economic leverage to persuade massed armies of Crusaders to go and friggin’ overthrow Constantinople for them, establishing a Latin Empire in the East and leaving the region of Byzantium convulsed in conflict between the Latins and the rump states of the Byzantines. Even if your campaign doesn’t take place in that part of the world, it’s a major illustration of how trading powers had become geopolitically significant by that point.  (There’s also a very useful bit at the back giving quick summaries of typical trade goods from a range of different regions, which is handy if you want to come up with a particular trader’s stock in a hurry.)

City & Guild gives such an interesting overview of such an overlooked set of aspects of medieval European life that I would say it is useful not only for Ars Magica but, in addition, it’s also useful for any historical RPG set in the era and of at least some utility for games in any fantasy setting with comparable social institutions.

Arts & Academe

This is a supplement which naturally has an awful lot of overlap with the core fantastic elements of Ars Magica; after all, Hermetic magic is presented as being steeped in the philosophical, scholastic, and academic outlook of the medieval period (to the point where your Artes Liberales skill contributes to some magical rolls!), so even your main mage PCs in an Ars Magica campaign are going to be interested in chatting about Plato or Aristotle with sufficiently well-read scholars, and fine artists or wise scholars are, in turn, excellent concepts for Companions, since they are placed to interact usefully both with significant non-magical institutions and with the Order of Hermes itself.

Arts & Academe, then, offers both an overview of the world of education, scholarship, and the fine arts in the medieval period, as well as a dense but rewarding breakdown of the worldview and theories then in vogue. It’s particularly fascinating as an illustration of how medieval thought at the time of 1220 AD (the default start date for 5E campaigns) is currently undergoing a new flowering, thanks to many works (especially by Aristotle) which had been lost during the Dark Ages being reintroduced to European academic circles. If you want a particularly deep look at the theories of the crystal spheres, the humours, the geocentric version of the world, what medieval thinkers really thought the world looked like (no, they did not think it was flat), and so on, this is a really great supplement. The authors, Matt Ryan & Mark Shirley, also have a keen idea of how some academic practices back in the day came close to magic in their own right – particularly considering how the distinction between astronomy and astrology was rather fast and loose, as was the distinction between chemistry and alchemy.

Back when White Wolf were publishing Ars Magica, in the 3rd Edition they introduced the idea of the Realm of Reason, a fifth Realm which acted to suppress the supernatural in all of its forms, as part of a vague effort to present Ars Magica as a credible backstory for the World of Darkness games. This late addition to the setting was an awkward fit in all sorts of ways, not least because of the way it presented academic libraries of the time as being houses of Reason which would suppress magic in a game setting where the most powerful wizards are presented as being highly academic and very given to poring over their books.

Atlas Games junked Reason for 4th Edition, and it’s never come back; Arts & Academe stands as a good argument as to why it shouldn’t, because the products of reasoned, academic scholarship in the Middle Ages are so fantastical to our modern worldview that they deserve to be integrated into the game alongside Hermetic theory, rather than standing in opposition to it. Thanks to its clear discussions of such matters, I would say that Arts & Academe is a very important supplement for anyone who wants to make the cosmological worldview of Mythic Europe have real depth to it.

Lords of Men

This supplement does, as the title suggest, takes in the nobility of Mythic Europe – in several different models as practiced across the continent at the time – as well as giving additional insight into secular rulership in general. In addition to that, though, it also takes a good look at the life of the average peasants – the Men of Lords, as it were – as well as various subjects of worldly import. There is an interesting chapter on the Hermetic law on interference in mundane affairs, which offers some pointers on just how cozy you can get with your local lord before it becomes a problem, and there’s an extensive section on mass combat that may be useful in my own campaign if the players start to take a detailed interest in the outcome of the Albigensian Crusades. There are also expanded combat rules to give additional options, which again sort of makes sense since the characters most interested in combat aside from Grogs will typically be Companions of a knightly or mercenary background. On the whole, it’s a solid supplement, if a bit of a grab-bag of odds and sods fitting the general “secular authority” theme.

The Church

As the title implies, this is a supplement-length look at the Church. Specifically, it’s what we would think of today as the Roman Catholic church, since that is the main variant of Christianity in most of the Tribunals of Mythic Europe. (To cover the various Orthodox churches and other groups would take a whole other supplement, and be largely irrelevant in many campaigns, but thanks to the Crusades the Roman church has a presence in more or less every Tribunal the Order of Hermes recognises.)

This is a supplement which obviously has a lot of interests in common with Realms of Power: The Divine; it distinguishes itself from that book by focusing much less on systems for representing the supernatural and miraculous and much more on providing an in-depth description of the structure and functioning of the church. The book covers subjects ranging from typical parishes and congregations to the governance and structure of the church to the monastic life, with extensive explanation of each and plentiful story ideas associated with them to boot, as well as specific notes on events which will be still in living memory in 1220 AD and which are, if your campaign follows history, just coming up on the horizon.

Specific chapters are offered for some issues of particular interest. The Knights Templar get a chapter covering their unique niche (nicely, the chapter also offers guidance on how other military orders differ from the Templars, so its ideas can also be used to represent them), and there is an entire chapter on the role of women in the church, which carries the obvious but welcome caveat that individual groups can of course elect to be a bit more ahistorical if they want to make women more equal in the church.

There’s also a very neat chapter on corruption within the church, both providing pointers on how to handle such plotlines and providing examples of three potentially controversial groups who could, believably, conceal some form of Infernal subversion or could simply be a bit eccentric but basically pious and decent sorts. (Interestingly, none of these are the Templars.)

What makes this chapter – and the supplement in general – so interesting is that the authors clearly are very knowledgeable about this stuff, and as per their biographies several of them are clearly sincerely religiously Christian, so unlike many depictions of corruption in the church in RPGs (and in fantasy in general) this clearly comes from a place of love and understanding rather than blanket condemnation. The discussion of how medieval stories and rumours of corruption in the church differed in their tropes from the lurid anticlerical fantasies of the late 18th and early 19th centuries is particularly interesting, because of course the later anticlerical tropes have, as a result of being extensively used in the original wave of Gothic fiction, become perennial starting points for depicting bad priests and rotten churches in fantasy fiction, so hints on how to make stories about the enemy within fit a medieval.worldview better really help when it comes to giving a distinctive flavour to Ars Magica stories on such themes.

Lastly, the book is rounded off with an excellent chapter describing the current state of the Franciscans in 1220 and their future evolution if the campaign does not change history – useful because, of course, in 1220 St. Francis is still alive and his community of friars is a novel and revolutionary new force in Christendom, and therefore may conceivably play a memorable role in an Ars Magica campaign starting at the assumed start date.

ENWorld’s Hot RPGs – December 2016

Time for another look at at ENWorld’s list of hot RPGs to round off the year. Usual reminder applies: RPGs are scored on the chart based on what’s being actively discussed on as wide a pool of internet fora and blogs as ENWorld can find RSS feeds for. It isn’t tracking sales, and it isn’t even tracking popularity (because conceivably a game could get onto the chart if there were a sufficiently virulent negative reaction to it). What I present here are the scores assigned to each game, not the percentages (which can tend to obscure whether there’s been a recent explosion of RPG discussion – for example, as associated with the D&D 5E release – or whether things are comparatively quiet on the RPG talkosphere).

First up, let’s get the rankings and absolute scores:

1	D&D 5th Edition				1506
2	Pathfinder RPG				 402
3	D&D 3rd Edition/3.5			 290
4	Old School Revival (OSR)		 205
5	D&D 4th Edition				 137
6	World of Darkness			 112
7	Savage Worlds				 101
8	OD&D					  85
9	Call of Cthulhu				  84
10	AD&D 2nd Edition			  77
11	What's OLD is NEW			  76
12	Dungeon Crawl Classics			  67
13	Shadowrun				  65
14	Dread					  63
15	Traveller				  61
16	Exalted					  58
17	RIFTS					  54
18	Dungeon World				  50
19	Mutants & Masterminds/DC Adventures	  49
20	GURPS					  45
21	ICONS					  44
22	Gumshoe					  36
23	Apocalypse World			  32
24	Deadlands				  31
25	Warhammer 40K				  30
26	AD&D 1st Edition			  25
27	Stars Without Number			  20
28	Cypher System				  19
28	Earthdawn				  19
30	Castles & Crusades			  18
31	The One Ring				  16
32	Firefly					  15
33	Dragon Age/Fantasy AGE/AGE		  14
34	13th Age				  12
35	Warhammer FRP				  11
35	Iron Kingdoms				  11
37	Doctor Who: Adventures in Time & Space	  10
37	Mutant Chronicles			  10
39	CORTEX System				   8
40	BESM					   7
40	d20 Modern				   7
42	Marvel Heroic Roleplaying		   6
42	HERO System / Champions			   6
42	True20					   6
42	Fading Suns				   6
42	Eclipse Phase				   6
47	A Song of Ice & Fire			   5
48	Feng Shui				   4
48	Alternity				   4
48	d20 Future				   4
48	Gamma World				   4
52	Star Wars (FFG)				   3
52	DC Heroes				   3
52	Chainmail				   3
55	Hackmaster				   2
55	Other Superhero RPGs			   2
55	Aberrant				   2
58	Ars Magica				   1
58	Ashen Stars				   1
58	Star Trek				   1
58	Colonial Gothic				   1
58	Runequest				   1
58	All Flesh Must Be Eaten			   1
58	TMNT					   1
58	Smallville				   1
66	Star Wars (SAGA/d20)			   0
66	Godlike / Wild Talents / NEMESIS	   0
66	Silver Age Sentinels			   0
66	Brave New World				   0
66	Golden Heroes / Squadron UK		   0
66	Star Wars (d6)				   0
66	Villains & Vigilantes			   0
66	FATE					   0
66	Marvel Super Heroes			   0
66	Marvel SAGA				   0
66	Paranoia				   0
66	Rotted Capes				   0
66	Hobomancer				   0
--	Stage					 DNC
*DNC = Did Not Chart

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ENWorld’s Hot RPGs – November 2016

Time for another look at at ENWorld’s list of hot RPGs. So it’s been a good long while since we did this, mostly because as of the last time the chart seemed to have become very same-y, but let’s see if anything substantial has changed in the last 9 months or so.

Usual reminder applies: RPGs are scored on the chart based on what’s being actively discussed on as wide a pool of internet fora and blogs as ENWorld can find RSS feeds for. It isn’t tracking sales, and it isn’t even tracking popularity (because conceivably a game could get onto the chart if there were a sufficiently virulent negative reaction to it). What I present here are the scores assigned to each game, not the percentages (which can tend to obscure whether there’s been a recent explosion of RPG discussion – for example, as associated with the D&D 5E release – or whether things are comparatively quiet on the RPG talkosphere).

First up, let’s get the rankings and absolute scores:

1	D&D 5th Edition				1172
2	Pathfinder RPG				 325
3	D&D 3rd Edition/3.5			 230
4	Old School Revival (OSR)		 163
5	D&D 4th Edition				 122
6	World of Darkness			  89
7	OD&D					  72
8	Call of Cthulhu				  70
9	Savage Worlds				  68
10	What's OLD is NEW			  61
11	Dread					  57
11	Dungeon Crawl Classics			  57
13	Shadowrun				  55
14	Traveller				  53
15	Exalted					  50
16	Mutants & Masterminds/DC Adventures	  44
17	Dungeon World				  43
18	ICONS					  40
19	GURPS					  39
20	AD&D 2nd Edition			  37
20	RIFTS					  37
22	Apocalypse World			  30
22	Gumshoe					  30
24	AD&D 1st Edition			  24
24	Deadlands				  24
26	Stars Without Number			  19
27	Earthdawn				  17
27	Warhammer 40K				  17
29	Castles & Crusades			  15
30	Warhammer FRP				  14
30	Cypher System				  14
32	Firefly					  12
32	13th Age				  12
32	Dragon Age/Fantasy AGE/AGE		  12
35	Iron Kingdoms				  11
35	Mutant Chronicles			  11
37	The One Ring				  10
38	Doctor Who: Adventures in Time & Space	   9
39	Eclipse Phase				   8
40	HERO System / Champions			   7
40	CORTEX System				   7
40	BESM					   7
43	d20 Modern				   5
43	Fading Suns				   5
43	Gamma World				   5
43	Marvel Heroic Roleplaying		   5
47	True20					   4
47	Alternity				   4
47	d20 Future				   4
50	Feng Shui				   3
50	A Song of Ice & Fire			   3
50	Star Wars (FFG)				   3
53	Other Superhero RPGs			   2
53	DC Heroes				   2
55	Chainmail				   1
55	Star Trek				   1
55	Colonial Gothic				   1
55	Hackmaster				   1
55	Ars Magica				   1
55	Ashen Stars				   1
55	Runequest				   1
55	Aberrant				   1
55	All Flesh Must Be Eaten			   1
55	Godlike / Wild Talents / NEMESIS	   1
55	Smallville				   1
55	TMNT					   1
67	Star Wars (SAGA/d20)			   0
67	Marvel SAGA				   0
67	Star Wars (d6)				   0
67	FATE					   0
67	Rotted Capes				   0
67	Villains & Vigilantes			   0
67	Hobomancer				   0
67	Brave New World				   0
67	Marvel Super Heroes			   0
67	Paranoia				   0
67	Silver Age Sentinels			   0
67	Golden Heroes / Squadron UK		   0
--	Stage					 DNC
*DNC = Did Not Chart

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New Blood For the Old Ceremony

One of the things which I think White Wolf and their successors in Onyx Path were actually quite good at, when they put their minds to it, was in providing interesting alternate modes of play in their various games through supplements. When they were at their best, a core World of Darkness rulebook would offer a strongly-defined default mode of play (or a selection of such modes in the case of the 20th Anniversary bricks) and then use supplements to open up interesting alternate possibilities, offering Storytellers a brace of new ideas and players suitable character generation guidance and support to make PCs who would engage with those ideas.

This was not just commercially sensible – though it does mean many of their books could appeal to player and Storyteller alike, which can’t have hurt. By approaching the product line in this way, at their best White Wolf made sure to give a clear answer to the old “but what do we actually do with this?” question, and I would go so far as to say that the weakest game lines were consistently those which did the worst job of handling that question.

The iconic example of this sort of thing is, of course, The Hunters Hunted and its V20 sequel, flipping Vampire on its head to let you play human vampire hunters going after bloodsuckers. Arguably the various guides to the Sabbat or the Anarchs also qualified, since they provided alternatives to the assumed Camarilla focus of the pre-V20 core books. For this article, I am going to look at a brace of other examples of this sort of thing in the Vampire: the Masquerade line, the first one from its early run and the latter two from the V20 line.

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A Microscopic Supplement

Indie RPGs of the arthouse school which actually get supplements published for them are a bit of a rarity. Plenty of indie games simply never get the sort of traction which would create an appetite for a supplement in the first place; in other cases, the core expression of the game represents more or less everything their creators want to say on the matter, at least in the form of an actual product, or the designers end up transferring their enthusiasm to new projects.

One exception is Microscope, whose designer Ben Robbins has turned out Microscope Explorer, both a collection of alternate spins on the core game, tools and aids to help support the standard game, and hints and pointers on best practice in play. I don’t have a whole lot to say about the Explorer that wouldn’t be something of a rehash of my original review of the game, but I want to put a particular spotlight on the way the advice on good Microscope practice is clearly built on experiences in actual play, which is something I wish were true of all RPG products but often isn’t.

Robbins has clearly both played a bunch of Microscope himself and taken into account the experiences of the wider audience that took it up after it got published, and it really shows in the points he chooses to expand on here and the way he explains why he considers particular approaches to be useful. One expects that if a Microscope 2nd Edition ever happened, some of the explanations offered here would likely make their way into the core book, especially since the Explorer seems to reflect Robbins’ evolving thoughts on this interesting new game format he has invented as much as it does a clarification of matters he wishes in retrospect he had expressed a little better in the original book.